Chinese classical garden is famous for its unique style of natural freehand landscape garden. The "Mountain" in the garden, that is, there are real mountains and rockery. Chengde Mountain Resort, Suzhou, the High righteousness garden, that is, the representative of the real Mountain garden. The vast majority of classical gardens in the mountains are rockery, artificial mountain in China's traditional garden will naturally occupy a very prominent position.
The large-scale application of false rocks in landscape architecture can be traced back to the Qin and Han dynasties, and then the application of Jingshi in landscape gardening has been promoted, and the technique and consciousness of piling up stone are also sublimated. Qin and Han dynasties, the wind of rockery is very popular, and the scale is very large, at this time the rockery is a vision of the Tushan and the combination of soil and Stone Mountain. The Upper grove of the Qin and Han dynasties, with Taimanchi dug the mound into the island, symbolizing the East China Sea Divine Mountain, created a man-made mountain precedent. This "three Mountains of the sea" in the water Island of the garden of artistic artistry, almost all Dynasties Emperors Palace all adopted, even some private small garden has been followed.
The Eastern Han Dynasty Liang Ji imitated illo two gorges, in the garden to construct the soil for the mountain, thus has opened up from to the immortal circle yearning, turns to the natural landscape imitation, marked the gardening art to the real life as the creation starting point. The period of Wei, Jin, southern and Northern dynasties from Third century to Sixth century is a turning point in the history of garden art. The garden was developed from the enclosure of Qin and Han Dynasty to the direction of the freehand landscape management, and gradually paid attention to the spiritual function of gardening. The design of gardening began to be refined. In some private gardens began to have a single piece of American Stone special. And at this time the natural landscape has been recognized by many literati, and they are organized into the garden, especially after the Jin Dynasty, landscape landscape is more prevalent.
The dominant position of rockery rock in Chinese classical garden is gradually established, and it turns to realistic style. In the Sui and Tang dynasties, the application of the creative techniques and methods of landscape gardening has entered a new realm, and the construction of the mountain water deliberately pursues a kind of miniature natural landscape, with small view of the great artistic conception. Especially in the construction of the artistic conception, because the literati involved in the gardening activities of the combination of engineering and art pay attention to scenes, through the guidance of the scenery to develop the imagination of the appreciation of two times to create. Tushan also have Stone Mountain, but most of the soil, stone-stacked stones are still rare.
In the garden by a single block of stone or some stone combination of stone Chengjing has been more common, in short this period, artificial mountain is rare, but has been widely recognized the aesthetic value of rocks, and will be "special" in the garden or for the basin in the precious reward. The Ming and Qing Dynasties garden stone landscape: Ming Art, more mature and universal. Ming Dynasty people Ji Cheng in the "Rockery Mountain" section of "Garden Metallurgy", enumerated the Garden Mountain, the Hall Mountain, Lou Shan, GE Shan, study Mountain, Chishan, Inner Mountain, Cliff Mountain, stone pool, goldfish bowl, Peak, Luan, rock, Cave, Jian, Qushui, waterfall and other 17 kinds of forms, summed up the Ming Dynasty mountain-building technology. The Qing Dynasty orogenic technology is more development and popularization. The building of the Garden house in the Qing Dynasty created the stacking method of the curved cave, with the size of the stone hook with arched, top wall, like natural steep, and can be estimated karst caves, superimposed mountain overhanging stalactites, than in the Ming Dynasty by a stone seal close to the top of the stacking method is much more reasonable, more brilliant.
The existing Suzhou Humble political park, the Yan Garden in Changshu, the Yuyuan Garden in Shanghai, are all masterpieces of the Ming and Qing dynasties garden orogenic. Through the arduous creation of the craftsmen and the accumulation of thousands of years of experience, the rockery has become the most expressive and characteristic artistic image in Chinese garden. Its continuous, prevalent, and even today still appear "rockery fever", indicating that it has a deep cultural foundation in China, is a love of the beauty of this aesthetic sentiment vivid portrayal. It is as important for Chinese gardens as sculpture is for western Gardens.
If the "natural, higher than nature" is the Chinese classical to one of the most important features, then, the art of gardening can embody the "higher than the nature" of this aspect, mainly in the stacked mountains of this high-level artistic creation.
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